Beyond 3D Printing

Using 3D models for other applications, like 4D Printing, AR/VR and more

From medical implants to medical devices, the 3D Medical Printing Series covers all aspects of 3D Printing for the medical profession. But at the same time there are several technologies which can be applied in addition or next to 3D Printing, like 4D printing, digital twins, 3D modelling, AI, smart glasses, VR, AR and Extended reality.

4D printing technology in medical engineering
4D printing means “Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) of objects able to self-transform, in form or function, when they are exposed to a predetermined stimulus, including osmotic pressure, heat, current, ultraviolet light, or other energy sources”. With the 3D printing methods, the manufacturing of the objects is based on the three geometrical axes x, y, and z, but in 4D printing, there is a new dimension, the “time” dimension. This does not represent the time taken to carry out the printing. Instead, it represents the passage of time while objects undertake shape transformation and are mentioned as the main difference between 3D and 4D printing.

source: 4D printing technology in medical engineering: a narrative review

Have a look at the differences between 3 and 4D printing technologies in the table below.

Source: 4D printing technology in medical engineering: a narrative review

Even though many advancements have been made, 4D printing is nevertheless at an initial stage. Therefore, more research is required on 4D printing technology parameters, including stimulus-responsive materials, imaging methods, additive manufacturing approaches, and stimulus. Also, the material restricts the advancement of 4D printing. The materials used for 4D printing should be sensitive; however, not all materials are stimulus-responsive materials, and not all stimulus-responsive materials can be used for printing devices.

The source of information about 4D printing in this page comes from the following paper: 4D printing technology in medical engineering: a narrative review.

Iman Sahafnejad-Mohammadi (Azad University, Iran), Mojtaba Karamimoghadam (Coventry University, UK), Ali Zolfagharian (Deakin University, Australia), Mohammad Akrami (University of Exeter, UK) & Mahdi Bodaghi (Nottingham Trent University, UK).
Publication: Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering
Publisher: Springer Nature
Date: May 11, 2022

Read the complete paper here.

During this conference speakers will give an actual status of 4D printing and / or other technologies in each topic (3D Bioprinting, 3D Dental Printing, 3D Medtech Printing and 3D Pharma Printing). Have a look at the program, or if you are interested to give a presentation yourself, contact us with this form.

All the topics (4D printing, digital twins, 3D modelling, AI, smart glasses, VR, AR and Extended reality) will be integrated in the in the conference program.

The first edition of this conference topic took place in 2020. Since then the conference topic returned to the 3D medical Printing Series annually. It will become more and more important that physical models and virtual models will be used next to each other to give the doctor and / or the patient a better insight in the treatment.

Have a look at other conferences organised by Jakajima over the years.